L'Anse aux Meadows is een Viking-nederzetting, gelegen op de noordelijkste tip van Newfoundland. De site werd ontdekt en opgegraven door de archeologen Helge en Stine Ingstadt in 1961. Er lagen minstens 8 gebouwen, waaronder een smederij.
De nederzetting stamt vermoedelijk uit de vroege 11e eeuw. De meeste geschiedkundigen gaan ervan uit dat L'Anse aux Meadows de kolonie in Vinland is die volgens de saga door Leif Eriksson gesticht was, maar anderen betwijfelen dit, en zijn vaak van mening dat Leifs kolonie meer zuidelijk moet hebben gelegen.
In 1978 werd L'Anse aux Meadows door de UNESCO op de werelderfgoedlijst geplaatst. Twee getrouw nagebouwde Viking-gebouwen vormen tegenwoordig een toeristische attractie.
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L'Anse aux Meadows (from the French L'Anse-aux-Méduses or "Jellyfish Cove") is an archaeological site on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, located in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, where the remains of a Norse village were discovered in 1960 by the Norwegian explorer Helge Ingstad and his archaeologist wife, Anne Stine Ingstad. L'Anse aux Meadows was determined to be Norse due to definitive similarities between the characteristics of structures and artifacts found at the site and those of Greenlandic and Icelandic sites from around A.D. 1000
The name "L'Anse aux Meadows" is believed to have originated with French fishermen in the area during the 1800s and 1900s who named the site "L'Anse aux Meduses," meaning "Jellyfish Bay." The modern name is an English corruption of the French name which occurred because the landscape in the area tends to be open, with meadows.
L'Anse aux Meadows is the only known Norse site in North America outside of Greenland, represents the farthest known extent of European exploration and settlement of the New World before the voyages of Christopher Columbus and John Cabot almost 500 years later, and is the only genuine evidence of pre-Columbian contact between the New and Old Worlds.
L'Anse aux Meadows was named a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1978.
Archaeological excavation at the site was conducted in the 1960s by an international team led by Ingstad and again in the 1970s under the direction of Parks Canada. Following each period of excavation, the site was reburied, in an effort to protect and conserve the cultural resources.
The settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows has been dated to approximately 1000 years ago, an assessment that agrees with the relative dating of artifact and structure types.The remains of eight buildings were located, believed to have been constructed of sod placed over a wooden frame. Based on associated artifacts, the buildings were variously identified as dwellings or workshops. The largest dwelling measured 28.8 by 15.6 m (94.5 by 51 ft) and consisted of several rooms.Workshops were identified as an iron smithy containing a forge and iron slag, a carpentry workshop which generated wood debris, and a specialized boat repair area containing worn rivets. Besides those related to iron working, carpentry, and boat repair, many artifacts found at the site consisted of common every-day Norse items, such as a whetstone, a bronze fastening pin, a bone knitting needle, and a stone oil lamp. Food remains included butternuts, notable since these do not grow naturally north of New Brunswick, probably indicating that the Norse inhabitants travelled further south. Archaeologists concluded that the site was inhabited by the Norse for a relatively short period of time.
In addition to the European settlement, evidence of at least five or six separate native occupations has been identified at L'Anse aux Meadows, the oldest dated at roughly 6000 years ago, although none was contemporaneous to the Norse occupation. The most prominent of these were the Dorset people who predated the Norse by about 200 years.
Possible connection with Vinland sagas
Norse sagas are written versions of older oral traditions. Two sagas, commonly called the Saga of the Greenlanders and the Saga of Eric the Red, describe the experiences of Norse Greenlanders who discovered and then attempted to settle a land to the west of Greenland, identified as Vinland. The Sagas seem to suggest that the Vinland settlement failed due to conflicts within the Norse community and between the Norse and the Native people they encountered.
While it is not possible to verify that L'Anse aux Meadows is indeed the Vinland of Saga, this remains a possibility, and it is often referred to as such in discussions of the site. Archaeologists tend to believe that the L'Anse aux Meadows site is not Vinland itself, but an exploration base and winter camp for expeditions heading further south to Vinland, which may have extended to the St. Lawrence River and New Brunswick
Op Cape Spear bevindt zich sinds 1836 een vuurtoren die thans de oudste, nog in werking zijnde, vuurtoren van Canada is. In 1878 werd er ook een misthoorn geïnstalleerd. Tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog werden er kustbatterijen op Cape Spear geplaatst om de konvooiroute tussen Europa en Noord-Amerika alsmede de toegang tot de haven van St. John's te beschermen.
De in de staat van 1839 herstelde vuurtoren wordt beheerd door Parks Canada.
Cape Spear, located on the Avalon Peninsula near St. John's, Newfoundland, is the easternmost point in Canada (52°37'W).
There is currently a dispute as to whether Cape Spear is the most easterly point in North America (Nordost Rundingen, Greenland also claims this title).
The Portuguese named this location "Cabo da Esperança" which means "cape of hope", which became "Cap d'Espoir" in French and finally "Cape Spear".
Cape Spear is the trailhead/trail end for two components of the East Coast Trail.
There has been a lighthouse operating at Cape Spear since September 1836. The original Cape Spear lighthouse was the second lighthouse built in Newfoundland; the first was built in 1810 at Fort Amherst, at the entrance to St. John's Harbour. In 1832, the first legislative assembly for the colony created a lighthouse board. Cape Spear was chosen as the site for a new lighthouse because it was on the rocky eastern coast near the entrance to St John's harbour.
Construction began in 1834. The first lighthouse was a square wooden building with a tower in the middle containing the light. A fog horn was added in 1878. The first light used at Cape Spear had already been used since 1815 at a lighthouse at Inchkeith on the east coast of Scotland. This light used seven Argand burners and curved reflectors. This was later replaced by a dioptric lens system; the light was first lit by oil, then acetylene and finally electricity in 1930.
Because of its proximity to convoy routes during the Second World War, a gun battery was installed at Cape Spear to defend the entrance to St. John's harbour. Barracks and underground passages leading to the bunkers were built for the use of troops stationed there.
A new concrete building was built to house the light in 1955. The original lighthouse building and the light keeper's residence have since been restored. It is the oldest surviving lighthouse in Newfoundland and the location has been designated a Canadian National Historic Site. Cape Spear was also used recently for filming of a hockey game in the Canadian television series, Road Hockey Rumble.